What Are Controls (Safeguards)?

Controls are logical mechanisms applied in an effort to reduce risk.

This may feel vague because the term is primarily an abstract, logical entity that has specific implementations and humans like more concrete, implementable things.

Architecturally these entities sit at the logical layer but have concrete instances that are implemented by contextualizing the qualities of the control into the system you target.

Architecture in General

Architecture is a strategic & holistic art/discipline that result in sets of views allowing people from different backgrounds and viewpoints to communicate & evaluate effectively about conceptual, logical and technical merits across any number of boundaries; real or perceived, technical, social or political.